## Cooperative Learning

22. Three-Step Interview

Although the name is a little fancy, three-step interviews are very basic. In this process, students are put into groups of two. The process begins as one student interviews the other about a topic predetermined by the teacher. After one student has finished interviewing, the roles switch and the other student does the interviewing. Students then rejoin their normal cooperative learning groups and share the information they learned.

An example of the three-step interview is found in the embedded lesson. During this lesson, pairs of students take turns interviewing each other about how they voted in the mock election. Instead of sharing this information with cooperative learning groups, however, the entire class engages in a short discussion.

Kagan, S. The structural approach to cooperative learning.

23. Reader’s Theatre

Reader’s Theatre is a strategy which helps students become excited about reading. Teachers begin the process by providing students with scripts of stories. Students are assigned different roles in the scripts, and are given time to practice before reading the stories aloud in character. Reading can be done in small groups or as a whole class. In an alternate to this traditional approach, students can also write their own scripts to be performed as a part of Reader’s Theatre.

This strategy could be used well in an elementary language arts class. The class could use Reader’s Theatre to perform part of a book they are reading, or to perform an actual script the teacher has found. Reading the script in a fun way will encourage students in the class about the excitement possible with reading.

Marzano, R.J. (2001).

24. Numbered Heads Together

In this cooperative learning strategy, students are grouped together in small groups (around four students per group), and each student has a specific number within the group. The teacher asks a question to the entire class while presenting the lesson, and then tells students to “put their heads together” so everyone in their group knows the correct answer. Students spend a couple minutes discussing the answer until every member knows it. The teacher then calls a number, and students with that number are able to raise their hands and answer the question.

This strategy could be used in a social studies class preparing for a test. If a middle school class is learning about Core Democratic Values, the teacher could ask the question “Which value has to do with expressing support for your country?” This strategy is useful in this scenario because it ensures all students at least hear the answer, which will hopefully give them good practice for the test.

Kagan, S. The structural approach to cooperative learning.

25. Jigsaw

In this cooperative learning strategy, students begin again in their groups of four. The teacher breaks the concept to be learned into four smaller concepts. Each team member is then assigned one of the four smaller concepts to become an expert on. All of the students studying the same topic meet together and are given time to learn their specific topic. After students are experts on their topics, students return to their normal groups and share what they learned. In this way, each group should be taught information about each of the four key concepts.

A good time to use this strategy would be in a science lesson with several complicated ideas. By splitting the concepts up, students will not be so overwhelmed with learning all of the information, but will become experts in one area and then listen to their group mates’ explanations of the others.

Kagan, S. The structural approach to cooperative learning.

**-Basics:***Time Needed:*10-20 minutes*Classroom Arrangement:*Pairs or normal arrangement.*Materials:*Interview sheet or blank paper, writing utensils for all students.**-Process:**Although the name is a little fancy, three-step interviews are very basic. In this process, students are put into groups of two. The process begins as one student interviews the other about a topic predetermined by the teacher. After one student has finished interviewing, the roles switch and the other student does the interviewing. Students then rejoin their normal cooperative learning groups and share the information they learned.

**-Example:**An example of the three-step interview is found in the embedded lesson. During this lesson, pairs of students take turns interviewing each other about how they voted in the mock election. Instead of sharing this information with cooperative learning groups, however, the entire class engages in a short discussion.

**-Source:**Kagan, S. The structural approach to cooperative learning.

*Educational Leadership.*23. Reader’s Theatre

**-Basics:***Time Needed:*At least 20 minutes*Classroom Arrangement:*Open space in the front of the classroom*Materials:*Scripts or paper and writing utensils for students to develop their own scripts.**-Process:**Reader’s Theatre is a strategy which helps students become excited about reading. Teachers begin the process by providing students with scripts of stories. Students are assigned different roles in the scripts, and are given time to practice before reading the stories aloud in character. Reading can be done in small groups or as a whole class. In an alternate to this traditional approach, students can also write their own scripts to be performed as a part of Reader’s Theatre.

**-Example:**This strategy could be used well in an elementary language arts class. The class could use Reader’s Theatre to perform part of a book they are reading, or to perform an actual script the teacher has found. Reading the script in a fun way will encourage students in the class about the excitement possible with reading.

**-Source:**Marzano, R.J. (2001).

*Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement.*Denver: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning.24. Numbered Heads Together

**-Basics:***Time Needed:*10 minutes*Classroom Arrangement:*Desks arranged in small groups.*Materials:*No materials necessary.**-Process:**In this cooperative learning strategy, students are grouped together in small groups (around four students per group), and each student has a specific number within the group. The teacher asks a question to the entire class while presenting the lesson, and then tells students to “put their heads together” so everyone in their group knows the correct answer. Students spend a couple minutes discussing the answer until every member knows it. The teacher then calls a number, and students with that number are able to raise their hands and answer the question.

**-Example:**This strategy could be used in a social studies class preparing for a test. If a middle school class is learning about Core Democratic Values, the teacher could ask the question “Which value has to do with expressing support for your country?” This strategy is useful in this scenario because it ensures all students at least hear the answer, which will hopefully give them good practice for the test.

**-Source:**Kagan, S. The structural approach to cooperative learning.

*Educational Leadership.*25. Jigsaw

**-Basics:***Time Needed:*At least 30 minutes*Classroom Arrangement:*Groups of around four.*Materials:*Textbooks, computers, or other instructional material for specific topics.**-Process:**In this cooperative learning strategy, students begin again in their groups of four. The teacher breaks the concept to be learned into four smaller concepts. Each team member is then assigned one of the four smaller concepts to become an expert on. All of the students studying the same topic meet together and are given time to learn their specific topic. After students are experts on their topics, students return to their normal groups and share what they learned. In this way, each group should be taught information about each of the four key concepts.

**-Example:**A good time to use this strategy would be in a science lesson with several complicated ideas. By splitting the concepts up, students will not be so overwhelmed with learning all of the information, but will become experts in one area and then listen to their group mates’ explanations of the others.

**-Source:**Kagan, S. The structural approach to cooperative learning.

*Educational Leadership.*